Negotiation Strategies: A highly effective framework that will ensure success

Negotiating an agreement without giving in

The Problem:

Don’t bargain over positions
  • Arguing over positions produces unwise outcomes
  • Arguing over positions is inefficient
  • Arguing over positions endangers an ongoing relationship
  • When there are many parties, positional bargaining is even worse
  • Being nice is no answer

The Method:

Separate the people from the problem
  • Negotiators are people first
  • Every negotiator has two kinds of interests: in the substance and in the relationship
  • The relationship tends to become entangled with the problem
  • Positional bargaining puts relationship and substance in conflict
  • Disentangle the relationship from the substance; deal directly with the people problem
  • Perception
  • Put yourself in their shoes
  • Don’t deduce their intentios from your fears
  • Don’t blame them for your problem
  • Discuss each other’s perceptions
  • Look for opportunities to act inconsistently with their perceptions
  • Give them a stake in the outcome by making sure they participate in the process
  • Face-saving: Make your proposals consistent with their values
  • Emotion
  • First recognize and understand emotions, theirs and yours
  • Pay attention to core concerns
  • Consider the role of identity
  • Make emotions explicit and acknowledge them as legitimate
  • Allow the other side to let off steam
  • Don’t react to emotional outbursts
  • Use symbolic gestures
  • Communication
  • Listen activey and acknowledge what is being said
  • Speak to be understood
  • Speak about yourself, not about them
  • Speak for a purpose
  • Prevention works best
  • Build a working relationship
  • Face the problem, not the people
Focus on interests, not positions
  • For a wise solution reconcile interests, not positions
  • Interests define the problem
  • Behind opposed positions lie shared and compatible interests, as well as conflicting ones
Invent options for mutual gain
  • Diagnosis
  • Premature judgment
  • Searching for the single answer
  • The assumption of a fixed pie
  • Thinking that solving their problem is their problem
  • Prescription
  • Separate inventing from deciding
  • Broaden your options
  • Look for mutual gain
  • Make their decision easy
Insist on using objective criteria
  • Deciding on the basis of will is costly
  • The case for using objective criteria
  • Principled negotiation produces wise agreements amicably and efficiently
  • Developing objective criteria
  • Fair standards
  • Fair procedures
  • Negotiating with objective criteria
  • Frame each issue as a joint search for objective criteria
  • Reason and be open to reason
  • Never yield to pressure
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